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How do I reference if publication details are missing?
Occasionally you will come across documents that lack basic publication details. In these cases, it is necessary to indicate to your reader that these are not available. A series of abbreviations can be used and are generally accepted for this purpose:
No date: use [n.d.]
No place (sine loco): use [s.l.]
No publisher: use [s.n.]
Not known: use [n.k.]
For web pages it is often necessary to look beyond the page you are referencing to the ‘Home Page’ for the whole site or at a link such as ‘About Us’ from that home page. Dates are often given at the bottom of web pages.
Referencing a source without a given author
First you should check if the publication has a Corporate Author and if so use this. If there is no corporate author and the author cannot be identified, use Anon. and date of publication.
Example:Anon. (1807) The happy villagers. Dublin: J. Shea.
Referencing a source without a given date
If there is no date for a source, use the author name and [n.d.].
Example: McCullough, A. [n.d.] Sustainable design within economic restrictions. London: Bryn Press.